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A Hydrogen Decrepitation Press-Less Process (HD-PLP) recycling method for recycling of anisotropic NdFeB magnets is demonstrated. The method combines hydrogen decrepitation (HD) disintegration of the initial magnet, powder sieving and the Press-Less Process (PLP), where hydride powder is sintered in a graphite mold.

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Apr 15, 2022 · An effective and complete processing route for the recycling of sintered Nd-Fe-B scrap magnets was proposed. Sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets were subjected to the Hydrogen Decrepitation (HD) process at various temperatures in the range of 50–300 °C, at two different pressures, 50 kPa and 200 kPa, followed by vacuum dehydrogenation in the range of 720–820 °C. Hydrogen decrepitation and recycling of NdFeB-type sintered magnets Zakotnik M, Devlin E, Harris IR, Williams AJ ... Environmental degradation of NdFeB magnets Yan GL, McGuiness PJ, Farr JPG, Harris IR Journal of Alloys and Compounds 2009;478:188-92 Oxidation of NdFeB-type magnets modified with additions of Co, Dy, Zr and V ...The room temperature hydrogenation causes decrepitation of the material, where the Nd-rich material forms NdH 2.7 and the Nd 2 Fe 14 B matrix grains form an interstitial hydrogen solution. The material expands by ∼5% and because of its brittle nature and differential expansion, undergoes decrepitation [16] .The use of 3-D laser confocal microscopy to visualise hydrogen interactions in-sit; The use of hydrogen decrepitation to extract NdFeB magnets from electronic assemblies; In-situ removal of magnets from large magnetic assemblies using hydrogen; Corrosion protection for NdFeB magnets; Recycling of rare earth magnets; Strip casting …

Oct 30, 2018 · The Hydrogen Decrepitation and the Hydrogen Disproportionation Desorption Recombination processes for the preparation and the recycling of the two industrially produced phases of SmCo alloys, SmCo5 and Sm2Co17, are reviewed. The effects of the chemical composition, the microstructure, the exposure time, the hydrogen pressure, and the temperature on the hydrogen absorption are discussed. The ... Anisotropic powder was prepared with precursor (NdDy)-(FeCoNbCu)-B sintered magnets by hydrogen decrepitation, desorption, and subsequent annealing treatment. The hydrogen desorption was performed in magnetic fields of 0, 1, 3, and 5 T. The orientation of tetragonal phase grains of the powder was evaluated from the …big drive towards recycling of NdFeB magnets due to supply constraints for rare earth metals. Workers at the University of Birmingham have previously shown that hydrogen …

Hydrogen absorption and desorption characteristics for high coercivity NdDyFeCoNbCuB sintered bulk magnets were studied, by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurement and hydrogenation kinetics measurement. The DSC measurements showed that hydrogenation of Nd-rich phase occurred in the temperature range of …

In this paper it is demonstrated that hydrogen could play a vital role in this process. Fully dense sintered NdFeB-type magnets have been subjected to the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process. Unfortunately, the contained NdFeB magnets break up into a friable magnetized powder which then sticks to the ferrous scrap and the shredder itself. A production-scale plant in Germany planned to go onstream in 2024 and a pilot plant launched a few months ago in the UK, expected to graduate to production-scale in 2023, …May 5, 2017 · The room temperature hydrogenation causes decrepitation of the material, where the Nd-rich material forms NdH 2.7 and the Nd 2 Fe 14 B matrix grains form an interstitial hydrogen solution. The material expands by ∼5% and because of its brittle nature and differential expansion, undergoes decrepitation [16]. Sep 20, 2016 · Hydrogen decrepitation of Pre-dismantled Computer HDDs. The University of Birmingham (UK) has developed a hydrogen-processing method to extract sintered NdFeB magnets from computer hard disk drives [13, 41]. During this process, either the voice coil assemblies from the hard disk drive or the cropped corner from the drive is exposed to hydrogen ... Electrolytic Hydrogen Decrepitation of NdFeB Magnets Under Ambient Conditions. V. Kaplan, Y. Feldman, …, I. Lubomirsky. Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy • Volume 8, Issue 3 • 1 September 2022. 1 citation; Scopus record. Article. 2D Pb-Halide Perovskites Can Self-Heal Photodamage Better than 3D Ones.

The processing and characterisation of recycled NdFeB-type sintered magnets. M. Degri. Materials Science, Engineering. 2014. A study of the processing and characterisation of sintered NdFeB magnets made from recycled feed stock was undertaken. Initially the hydrogen decrepitated (HD) powder was investigated using two…. Expand.

We report investigations on the processing by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) of RE2Fe14B (RE = Nd, Pr…) powders obtained by hydrogen decrepitation of …

Apr 15, 2022 · An effective and complete processing route for the recycling of sintered Nd-Fe-B scrap magnets was proposed. Sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets were subjected to the Hydrogen Decrepitation (HD) process at various temperatures in the range of 50–300 °C, at two different pressures, 50 kPa and 200 kPa, followed by vacuum dehydrogenation in the range of 720–820 °C. The nature of hydrogen decrepitation when applied to a cast Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet alloy has been studied by following the microstructural changes on polished surfaces of the material exposed to hydrogen at a pressure of 4 bar. The milling of the material decrepitated at a pressure of 10 bar has also been studied by determining …Abstract: Hydrogen decrepitation (HD) is an effective and environmentally friendly technique for recycling of neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets. During the HD process, the NdFeB breaksOver the last ten years several groups have been carrying out research into metal injection moulding (MIM) of neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) powders to produce isotropic or …The processing and characterisation of recycled NdFeB-type sintered magnets. M. Degri. Materials Science, Engineering. 2014. A study of the processing and characterisation of sintered NdFeB magnets made from recycled feed stock was undertaken. Initially the hydrogen decrepitated (HD) powder was investigated using two…. Expand. Hydrogen decrepitation (HD)/hydrogenation disproportionation desorption recombination (HDDR) is a process used in manufacturing REPM and carried out as pretreatment before green body sintering. During hydrogenation, the Nd-rich grain boundary phase in NdFeB magnets initially absorbs hydrogen forming Nd hydride: [ 49 ].International Journal of Hydrogen Energy Volume 22, Issues 2–3 , February–March 1997 , Pages 241-244 Technical and operating features of interaction between hydrogens and alloys and magnets on the basis of rare earth metals

An effective and complete processing route for the recycling of sintered Nd-Fe-B scrap magnets was proposed. Sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets were subjected to the Hydrogen Decrepitation (HD) process at various temperatures in the range of 50–300 °C, at two different pressures, 50 kPa and 200 kPa, followed by vacuum dehydrogenation in …Abstract. In this paper we describe and discuss the use of hydrogen in the processing ofNdFeB-type magnets. The roles of hydrogen in the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) and hydrogenation, disproportionation, desorption and recombination (HDDR) processes are considered together with the characteristics of the magnets produced by …The hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process are studied in detail based on these results. The hydrogen absorption mechanism of Sm(CoFeCuZr) 7.6 alloy can be regarded as a hydrogen dissolution process without phase transformation. In addition, the existence of a large amount of fine grains in the SC has an adverse effect on the …The hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process are studied in detail based on these results. The hydrogen absorption mechanism of Sm(CoFeCuZr) 7.6 alloy can be regarded as a hydrogen dissolution process without phase transformation. In addition, the existence of a large amount of fine grains in the SC has an adverse effect on the …The decrepitation process and related changes in the sample temperature are analysed to explain the experimentally observed weight gain curve of a Nd–Fe–B sample due to hydrogen uptake. It is shown that the expansion of the specific surface resulting from decrepitation of the sample is the most important parameter controlling …There are many major production steps –plus numerous sub steps- in the manufacture of high-quality, high-tech Neodymium magnets. Each step is highly important, and each step is an essential part of a highly refined …

Feb 9, 2023 · Abstract The process of hydrogen decrepitation of the (Nd, Pr, Dy)(Fe, Co)2.6 alloy in wide temperature and pressure ranges has been studied. The choices of the chemical composition of the (Nd, Pr, Dy)(Fe, Co)2.6 alloy and the method of production of the initial alloy based on out-of-furnace calcium–thermal reduction are substantiated. The introduction of dysprosium into the alloy ...

So exposure at LOW temperature to hydrogen leads the NdFeB pieces to react via intergranular fracturation (decrepitation), the mass of Nd2Fe14B grains forminfg a metal hydride with max ... The hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process are studied in detail based on these results. The hydrogen absorption mechanism of Sm(CoFeCuZr) 7.6 alloy can be regarded as a hydrogen dissolution process without phase transformation. In addition, the existence of a large amount of fine grains in the SC has an adverse effect on the …The behavior of hydrogen absorption and release in hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process of Nd-Fe-B alloys were investigated. The results reveal that the reactivity and the amount of hydrogen absorption in HD process are related to the surface activity of the alloy so that the fresh and active surface has a higher efficiency. The presence of Nd-rich phase at the …Sagawa obtained ultrafine NdFeB grain by innovative HD (hydrogen-decrepitation) + HDDR (hydrogenation-disproportionation-desorption-recombination) + helium jet milling process. It should be noted that the helium gas is more suitable than nitrogen gas to fabricate ultrafine powder due to its lighter mass fraction, and will also …Step 3: Hydrogen Decrepitation. Rare earth elements have hydrogen absorption effect. NdFeB magnet alloy sheets are placed in a vacuum tube rotary furnace. As hydrogen gas is filled, rare earth-rich phase in the grain boundary of NdFeB magnet alloy absorbs hydrogen gas. After hydrogen absorption saturated, the rare earth-rich phase turns to ...Hydrogen decrepitation (HD) is an effective and environmentally friendly technique for recycling of neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets. During the HD process, the …Electrolytic Hydrogen Decrepitation of NdFeB Magnets Under Ambient Conditions. V. Kaplan, Y. Feldman, …, I. Lubomirsky. Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy • Volume 8, Issue 3 • 1 September 2022. 1 citation; Scopus record. Article. 2D Pb-Halide Perovskites Can Self-Heal Photodamage Better than 3D Ones.

Hydrogen processing of magnetic scrap (HPMS) as one of the best approaches for magnet-to-magnet recycling is thoroughly reviewed in this study in terms …

The obtained strips were pulverized and further milled into ∼5 μm powder using hydrogen decrepitation and jet milling, respectively. These powders were pressed in a magnetic field of 1.8 T under a pressure of 8.0 MPa. Afterward, the green compacts were sintered at 1070°C for 3 h in vacuum, cooled by Ar quenching. ... NdFeB sintered …

May 5, 2023 · The first is the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process, which is already used in the primary production of NdFeB magnets to convert the alloy into powder form before further comminution. 46 The second process, named HDDR, which consists of two different steps, namely hydrogenation–disproportionation (HD) and desorption–recombination (DR), was ... Nov 1, 2017 · Fig. 1. Illustration of the Hydrogen Decrepitation Press-Less Process (HD-PLP) recycling of anisotropic sintered NdFeB magnet. Passivated commercial N48M sintered magnets were used as starting material and hydrogen was applied to disintegrate the magnets inside a ball milling container. The hydride powder was both used directly and some powder ... The scrap sintered Nd–Fe–B magnets were recycled as the raw materials for bonded magnets using the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process. The HD powders have the lowest oxygen and hydrogen content by hydrogenation at 150 °C with 1 bar H2 pressure and dehydrogenation at 600 °C. The powders with the largest particle size (>380 μm) …magnets. The thermal and mechanical impact of the hydrogen decrepitation process was assessed during hydrogen processing. For all forms of sintered NdFeB scrap the surface condition of the magnets is important as oxidation has been shown to inhibit the onset of the hydrogen decrepitation process. In thisFeb 1, 1997 · Hydrogen decrepitation of Nd-Fe-B type magnet alloys is a two stage process. Firstly, the hydrogen reacts with the Nd-rich phase at or close to room temperature. This is an exothermic reaction [4] and the heat evolved then allows the second stage to proceed in which the hydrogen is absorbed by the Nd^FeuB matrix phase. The oxidation kinetics in air of a commercial NdFeB magnet have been investigated over the temperature range 335–500°C. The oxide microstructure has been characterized by SEM, XRD and cross-sectional TEM. The results show that the external scale formed consists of an outer layer of Fe2O3 and an inner layer of Fe3O4 but that the principal degradation …Hydrogen absorption/adsorption properties of high coercivity NdDyFeCoNbCuB sintered magnets were determined. Hydrogenation kinetics were analyzed using both differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Hydrogenation of the Nd-rich intergranular phase results in a rather broad and large peak …In this paper it is demonstrated that hydrogen could play a vital role in this process. Fully dense, sintered NdFeB-type magnets have been subjected to the …The desorption of hydrogen from NdFeB powder and unmilled material produced using hydrogen decrepitation as a premilling technique was investigated using a mass spectrometer to monitor the hydrogen partial pressure in the system as the sample was heated under vacuum from room temperature to approximately 1000 degrees C. A …Various anti-corrosion coatings used on commercially available NdFeB-type magnets were comparatively examined for their durability and suitability for magnet reprocessing by hydrogen-assisted recycling (HPMS). Layer thickness and structure were determined by systematic microstructural analysis, and a standardized corrosion test …

May 5, 2023 · The first is the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process, which is already used in the primary production of NdFeB magnets to convert the alloy into powder form before further comminution. 46 The second process, named HDDR, which consists of two different steps, namely hydrogenation–disproportionation (HD) and desorption–recombination (DR), was ... Hydrogen Decrepitation (HD) has been used as an efficient and economical method in producing coarse NdFeB powder. This article studied the effects of hydrogen on the Nd-Dy-Fe-B magnets, such as HD ...magnets. The thermal and mechanical impact of the hydrogen decrepitation process was assessed during hydrogen processing. For all forms of sintered NdFeB scrap the surface condition of the magnets is important as oxidation has been shown to inhibit the onset of the hydrogen decrepitation process. In this Instagram:https://instagram. diamond garage doors and openers llc reviewsgorgee profondegentlemanpercent27s gurudc league of super pets Hydrogen Decrepitation is a process step used in the production of Neodymium magnets to create extremely small grains in the material. Neodymium magnets must have very small grains averaging about 5 micrometers in order to have the best magnetic properties. But the grain sizes after casting are much larger than that, so they must be ground down ... its about drive itsonos move won NdFeB ingot exposed to hydrogen atmosphere due to the changes of hydride lattice parameters cracks. The process called HDDR (Hydrogenation - Decrepitation -D... denkt mit The reaction speed in the typical hydrogenation run (Fig. 1b, 1d) is limited only by the rate of the gas diffusion into the sample.When the reaction proceeds in deficiency of hydrogen (Fig. 1b) only a part of the Nd transforms into neodymium hydride NdH y as it follows from the diffraction pattern displayed in Fig. 2d.That pattern includes …The scrap sintered Nd–Fe–B magnets were recycled as the raw materials for bonded magnets using the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process. The HD powders have the lowest oxygen and hydrogen content by hydrogenation at 150 °C with 1 bar H2 pressure and dehydrogenation at 600 °C. The powders with the largest particle size (>380 μm) …The use of 3-D laser confocal microscopy to visualise hydrogen interactions in-sit; The use of hydrogen decrepitation to extract NdFeB magnets from electronic assemblies; In-situ removal of magnets from large magnetic assemblies using hydrogen; Corrosion protection for NdFeB magnets; Recycling of rare earth magnets; Strip casting …